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03.01.2007.

Zależności w świecie przyrody

Przyroda jest pięknym, aczkolwiek trudnym obiektem do fotografowania. Wymaga od nas ciągłej obserwacji, wielu lat badań aby zrozumieć zachodzące w niej zjawiska i zależności. Uwiecznienie takich momentów wymaga od osoby fotografującej zapoznania się z tym światem i rządzącymi nim prawami. Interesującym, i sądzę że znanym każdemu przykładem koligacji w świecie przyrody, jest układ pomiędzy mszycą, mrówkami i biedronkami. W tej kwestii można podawać wiele przykładów takich zależności ale zanudzilibyście się czytaniem. Przejdźmy więc do sedna.

 
 

Mszyce (Aphidodea) stanowią dość liczną rodzinę, która na pewno dała się każdemu we znaki. W ich cyklu rozwojowym występują dwie postacie: bezskrzydłe (zw. morfami) i uskrzydlone (zw. dzieworódkami). Te pierwsze należą do pokolenia wiosennego składającego się z bezskrzydłych dzieworodnych i żyworodnych samic, które są źródłem wzrostu ich populacji. Mszyce lubią rośliny ale rośliny nie lubią mszyc. Nie dość, że mogą się pożywić ich sokiem, to jeszcze wpuszczają im czasami jakiegoś wirusa. To już lekka przesada (no nie?).

 
 

Mszyce wydzielają lepką substancję z położonych na odwłoku rurkowatych wyrostków (tzw. syfonów), która spełnia funkcje obronne. Na domiar złego mają swoich ochroniarzy, czyli mrówki, a konkretnie jeden gatunek – podziemnice zwyczajne (Lasius flavus), które żyją głównie pod ziemią i tam też zakładają gniazda. Barwa ciała tych mrówek jest od bladożółtej do żółtobrązowej. Mszyce stosują pewną formę przekupstwa wobec podziemnic: w zamian za opiekę nad jajami i ochronę przed biedronkami dostają słodkie jedzenie – spadź (tzn. nadmiar zawartych w pobieranym soku cukrów). Podziemnice zwyczajne w zimie znoszą do mrowiska jaja mszyc, a na wiosnę przenoszą wylęgnięte z tych jaj młode osobniki na rośliny którymi się żywią. Występują jednak w przyrodzie regulatorzy populacji tych pluskwiaków czyli biedronki (Coccinella).

 
 

„Biedroneczki są w kropeczki i to chwalą sobie...” jak mówią słowa popularnej piosenki. Na zdjęciu widnieje biedronka siedmiokropka (Coccinella septempunctata), która podobno przynosi szczęście (jeżeli to czytacie, to naprawdę uwierzę w szczęście). Biedronki nie boją się mrówek. Wydzielają odstraszające je kropelki żółtawej hemolimfy. Każda samica biedronki może złożyć kilkaset jaj. Wylęgnięte z nich larwy w czasie swego rozwoju zjadają do 400 mszyc. Straty w szeregach pluskwiaków są całkiem spore, dlatego biedronki wykorzystuje się jako naturalną broń biologiczną do ich zwalczania.

 
 

Po tym krótkim wstępie przejdźmy do szczegółów (ha, ha). Tak więc, świat przyrody rządzi się swoimi prawami i tak jak w opisanym powyżej przypadku posiada umiejętności przetrwania i radzenia sobie w każdej sytuacji. W przyrodzie wszystko ma swoje miejsce i sens, które czasami dla obserwatorów bywa fascynujące i intrygujące, a niekiedy wprost przeciwnie dziwne i okrutne. Cóż, takie są prawa natury.

Tekst: mgr inż. Teresa Pieniak
Zdjęcia: mgr inż. Teresa Pieniak

 
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